Tag Archives: orthoptera

The Scaly Crickets

by Joseph DeSisto

Among many new species named today, some of the most unusual were three new crickets from Southeast Asia (Tan et al. 2015). These crickets belong to the obscure and poorly-known family Mogoplistidae, cousins to the more recognizable (and audible) field crickets (Gryllidae). They look like field crickets too, except that their bodies are covered in scales.

A scaly cricket (Arachnocephalus vestitus). © Entomart.

A scaly cricket (Arachnocephalus vestitus). © Entomart.

When you touch a butterfly’s wings, you might notice a fine, powdery substance rubbing off on your fingers. The powder is made up of microscopic scales, which cover the wings of butterflies and moths. Scales give the wings their color, but they also provide insulation and protect the wings during flight. Perhaps most importantly, scales can fall off and make the wings slippery. This allows butterflies and moths to evade a careless hand as easily as a wet bar of soap.

The scientific name for butterflies and moths is Lepidoptera, which translates to “scaly wing” — scales are one of the most important features defining the group. However, many other groups of insects also have scales. Mosquitoes and silverfish have them, and so do scaly crickets.

The scales of a scaly cricket (Ornebius formosanus). Figure from Yang and Yen (2001), licensed under CC BY 2.0.

The scales of a scaly cricket (Ornebius formosanus). Figure from Yang and Yen (2001), licensed under CC BY 2.0.

Cricket scales, like those of butterflies and mosquitoes, are microscopic, powder-like, and easily shed. To really appreciate their beauty, a scanning electron microscope is needed. The first look came in 2001, when Yang and Yen published the first high-resolution images of cricket scales.

Aside from being scaly, scaly crickets aren’t all that unusual. They are adaptable, able to eat decaying plants as well as other insects, and they tend to live in moist sandy habitats. No scaly crickets are capable of flight, and females lack wings entirely, but the males do have small wings which they rub together to make chirping sounds (Love and Walker 1979). Click on the audio file below to listen to an amorous male scaly cricket (recorded by Thomas J. Walker).

Of the three new species, two were found in the Sakaerat Biosphere Reserve, in Thailand. This reserve consists mainly of high-altitude dry forest, with a few grasslands, and is home to many endangered species including tigers and giant black squirrels.

The third cricket is native to Pulau Ubin, an island off the coast of Singapore. Pulau Ubin is one of the last remaining wild areas in the already tiny country. Singapore’s government has been eager to develop portions of the island, but in recent years tourism has become more profitable. Fear of losing foreign visitors has encouraged officials to protect, rather than level, valuable habitat. For now, the status of the new scaly crickets appears secure, but in rapidly urbanizing Southeast Asia, nothing is certain.

A scaly cricket (Mogoplistes brunneus). © Entomart.

A scaly cricket (Mogoplistes brunneus). © Entomart.

Cited:

Love R.E. and T.J. Walker. 1979. Systematics and acoustic behavior of scaly crickets (Orthoptera: Gryllidae: Mogoplistinae) of eastern United States. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 105:

Tan M.K., P. Dawwrueng, and T. Artchawakom. 2015. Contribution to the taxonomy of scaly crickets (Orthoptera: Mogoplistidae: Mogoplistinae). Zootaxa 4032(4): 381-394.

Yang J. and F. Yen. 2001. Morphology and character evaluation of scales in scaly crickets (Orthoptera: Grylloidea: Mogoplistidae). Zoological Studies 40(3): 247-253.